Unlike other children of his age, Danish's illness has not caused much worry to anyone. Danish who is 14 fractured his arm after falling from a swing. He has not been well since.

Danish can be found in the dirty smelly interiors of an orphanage in the otherwise posh colony of Jawahar Nagar. He is pale and fragile and tucks in a corner under a thin quilt.

Danish is unnaturally calm. When in pain, he soothes himself, and wishes he were beside his mother.

Danish has a family in Anantnag but lives in an orphanage. He was admitted there by his mother after the death of his father, a militant. It has been seven years now.

"My father was a militant and was killed. After his death we got really poor. So I was left to live here," says Danish, with large black eyes. "I go home at times. But this is where I actually live."

Is he happy?

Danish takes a long pause, looks fleetingly at his roommate, Manzoor, and says, "Yes," but adds immediately, "I miss home and my mother a lot." Manzoor from Baramullah has the same story. He has been in the orphanage for eight years since the killing of his militant father.

Manzoor and Danish may look normal but they carry overpowering sadness within. They delay replies and prefer not to speak. If they have aspirations, they are deeply buried. Silence rules them.

Scores of children like Danish and Manzoor live in orphanages of Kashmir because their families cannot bear their expenses. Food, clothing and education are provided to these children but their emotional and psychological sensitivities remain unattended, leading to disorders.

Psychiatrist Dr Mushtaq Margoob's survey of Kashmir's orphanages reveals nearly 41 percent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children, followed by major depressive disorder in one-quarter cases. Seizure, attention deficit hyperkinetic, panic and conversion disorders show an incidence between 7-13 percent.

In 1986 before the start of the turmoil, Srinagar had a single orphanage. The Valley's few orphans were adopted by relatives or kindly neighbours. But from 1989-2009, according to an NGO, 107,243 children were orphaned. Kashmir's orphanages can take in only one to two thousand children. The majority wait for help.

Some orphanages do serious and valuable work. But most cannot provide home environments and provoke or exacerbate existing psychiatric disorders. "Children placed in orphanages at a young age and for long periods risk developing serious psychopathologies later in life," says Dr Margoob. They have troubled interpersonal relations and face grave problems in parenting their own children. The specialist psychiatrist agrees that orphanages are breeding psychiatric problems.

"In orphanages, children are provided food, clothing and education, which form their physical needs," says Dr Margoob. "But their psychological needs, like intellectual and emotional, are neglected." Just a few orphanages in Kashmir cater to the every need of child inmates.

Dr Mushtaq says orphanages should provide a human social environment that offers close and stable relationships between members. "Orphans have to be brought up the way their families would have, meeting their genuine needs in time," he says.

If psychiatric issues of orphans are not countered, it could result in deviant and criminal behaviour.

The problem is not limited to children in orphanages but extends to those living with families. Although there is no study, another psychiatrist, Dr Arshad Hussain, says, "The conflict has undoubtedly given rise to psychiatric disorders among children in Kashmir," with PTSD being most prevalent.

"A four-year-old girl," says Dr Arshad, "turned completely numb for months after witnessing a gun battle between troops and militants in her own house." A severe case of PTSD, she got better after six months of persistent treatment.

"The effect of witnessing a bomb blast or seeing a dead body is more serious on children than on adults," he continues. "Adults might reason it out but children don't. Someone may become a better human being after a bad experience. But it can also lead to developmental problems."

Psychiatrists stress on counseling from school level so that children are treated before their studies, careers and later relationships are affected. Kashmir has one hospital for psychiatric illnesses and none dedicated to children.