As the author says (Commentary, "First fruit," 13 February 2009), the progress on ATV indeed is good news, though the hardware is only a fraction of the puzzle. Among the triad of nuclear weapons' delivery systems, the nuclear submarine invites inherently complex doctrine, command, communication, deployment and training that is equal to its supreme deterrence effect. It is the "Luca Brasi on auto-pliot" for the Godfather fans. Which brings us to the main argument, that upping the ante on China on the nuclear side will have an effect on Pakistan. India needs to maintain a credible deterrent against China at all times to come. But deterrence is not be confused with aggressive posturing to achieve political aims. It was/ is China's intent to prop up Pakistan's nuclear weapon capabilities to box India in a low-grade ongoing struggle. However, circa 1990, once China transferred know-how and delivery systems, that intent has been materialized successfully. Now Pakistan is on auto-pilot mode. That was the whole point of the project: Making Pakistan independently bothersome to India. Now posturing against China does not alter the situation in the North West. Luca wasn't going to be called off even by a "deal-ready" Sonny. The better option before India is to crystallize the choice before the "international community" that, to a myriad of problems like Afghanistan, its own viability, Iran, nuclear proliferation, the continued Pakistani nuclear capability imposes unacceptable costs to any viable strategy. And when the risk scale tips on the other side, "a coalition of the willing" can silently work on it.